Starting from this definition, we begin to talk about molds , describing them as an agglomeration of mycelia whose appearance and color vary in relation to the type of spores involved and the environmental conditions in which this proliferation takes place.
The formation of mold is due to the migration of tiny spores produced by fungi which, carried by the air mainly in summer and autumn, settle on the surfaces of rooms that are “hospitable” for them, characterized by excess humidity and poor ventilation .
It is in these conditions that the spores, after having established themselves, germinate and begin the multiplication process, initially showing a series of dark dots which subsequently degenerate into dark and spongy spots, called mycelia.
Although habit leads us to associate the formation of mold on the walls of the house, it is important to know that these microorganisms are able to adapt to any type of surface that has the right conditions, such as clothing, books, sofas, etc.
It is therefore good to try to stem the phenomenon of humidity , or eliminate it if it is manifest, in order to prevent it from spreading uncontrollably, aggravating the conditions of environmental comfort and therefore health for the tenants.
Another important consideration concerns the ability of molds to settle in depth, seriously compromising the quality and durability of objects, but above all of buildings.
Mold in the house: the causes
There are several causes to which the formation of mold on the walls can be attributed , such as poor ventilation, excessive humidity, insufficient thermal insulation, lack of exposure to sunlight and inadequate maintenance; of primary importance is the role played by humidity , without which mold in the house could not settle and exist.
For this reason , molds tend to appear on the walls during the winter months , when humidity reaches high percentages due to the marked difference in temperature between inside and outside; this difference generates condensation points causing the formation of water droplets on the walls.
The presence of thermal bridges , that is “discontinuity of thermal insulation that can occur in correspondence with the grafts of structural elements (floors and vertical walls or vertical walls between them),” as reported by the Legislative Decree 192 of 2005 relating to the containment of energy consumption in buildings.
It is therefore necessary to resolve the dispersions in these critical points in order to achieve greater energy savings, translated into lower heating and cooling costs, and savings on maintenance costs due to an increase in the duration of the structure and its elements exempt from the degradation caused by humidity.